Procedural Models of Political Order

L-System 013, by William Chyr
  1. In both cases the change was advantageous for both the system and the agents. The former regained the stability it had lost with the growth of an increasingly entrepreneurial bourgeoisie, while the latter gained greater opportunities than they had previously enjoyed. If the changes had benefited only one or the other side, they would have failed.
  2. In both cases it was done via the skillful inflection of pre-existing tendencies — changing the criterion for wealth redistribution from proximity to utility in the Chinese case, and the fulcrum of loyalty from a local to a national one in the Anglo-European case. The definition of leadership did not change — it was still based upon redistribution in the Chinese system and on protection in the Anglo-European one. The only change was in the channels through which this was expressed. Once the new channels were established, agents assimilated them so completely that they were passed down to subsequent generations with no questioning or suggestion that alternatives could be possible or desirable. If the change requires a complete rewiring of agents’ preferences, then it will likely be bypassed rather than assimilated — something explains the prevalence of one-party states across the Chinese cultural sphere, even in nations such as Japan and Singapore that possess entirely democratic institutions.

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Doing research on public opinion.

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Ts’ang Chung-shu

Ts’ang Chung-shu

Doing research on public opinion.

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